4. Reproduction is a must process for every individual for the continuing existence of the species. Here, pyruvate is modified to pyruvate phosphoenol. Carbon dioxide released in this reaction is accepted by RUBP. They show  radial symmetry . In various C4 plants, small differences have been noted in the procedure of the C4 photosynthesis model (Hatch- Slack pathway). In the presence of the enzymes transaminase and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+) particular malate dehydrogenase respectively, oxaloacetic acid quickly balances with other C4-dicarboxylic acids, aspartic acid, and malic acid. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase catalyzes this reaction. Spiracles and Ostia are present in their whole body to admit a water current which is circulated through a canal system inside the body passes out through a more large exhalent opening, the Osculum. Even though the C3 cycle is found in every plant, the C4 pathway is primarily noticeable in plants of the tropical region. 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Oaa is the unique feature of phylum Porifera, we are going to explore an topic...